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Law Reviews & Journals: Research and Publishing Guide

A guide with information on resources for cite checks, Bluebooking, and writing articles.

Citation Resources

Nothing helps you gain an understanding (if not an appreciation) of the Bluebook better than constant use. That being said, here are some places you can go if you're stuck on a citation issue. Don't forget that you can always contact a reference librarian for help.

Finally, a good trick for figuring out the citation for a truly bizarre source is to see how other law reviews have done it. In HeinOnline, Westlaw, and Lexis, you can limit your results to those articles occurring in the four journals that write the Bluebook (the Columbia Law Review, Harvard Law Review, University of Pennsylvania Law Review and the Yale Law Journal) and see how those editors have dealt with your source.

What is is a web-based service that allows journal editors to create and link to a permanently preserved copy of almost any publicly-available web resource. Creating Perma Links for web citations prevents link rot, the problem of web resources becoming unavailable when websites change the URLs of their content or remove content entirely. Accounts

The Library has created organization-level accounts for each of Mitchell Hamline's law reviews and journals. The organization-level accounts allow editors to create an unlimited number of Perma Links at no cost. Contact Sean Felhofer for login assistance.


  • Login to
  • Paste the URL for the specific webpage you with to preserve into the "create a Perma Link" box, or use the “create multiple links” option.
  • Select the associated journal from the drop‚Äźdown list.
  • Click the “Create Perma Link” button. Two versions of the webpage will be created: a "Capture View" that preserves the underlying code of the page and a "Screenshot View" that is a flat image of the page.
  • Review the newly-created Perma Link by checking that both the Capture View and Screenshot View contain the information that was intended to be archived. If the new Perma Link did not get created correctly, delete it and re-enter the URL and try again.
  • Add the Perma Link to your citation. See the sample citation below on this page

When to Use

Use when citing to material on the Internet, such as websites, newspaper articles, blogs, working papers, or any website or webpage that does not use another form of permanent URL.

Common permanent URLs include any link that starts with or or These links will remain stable over time and do not require the created on a Perma Link.

Do not use for links to articles or resources found in commercial databases including Westlaw, Lexis, HeinOnline, Bloomberg, and others. Commercial databases maintain their own permanent URL systems.

Sample Citation

Rule 18.2.1(d) of The Bluebook (21st edition, 2020) encourages archiving Internet sources when a reliable archival tool such as is available. In the citation, the archived URL should be appended to the full citation in brackets.

For example:

See Andrew Jacobs, Matt Richel, & Mike Baker, ‘At War with No Ammo’: Doctors Say Shortage of Protective Gear Is Dire, N.Y. TIMES (Mar. 19, 2020), []

More Information on

Contact Sean Felhofer for assistance with